JLIS.it https://jlis.it/index.php/jlis <p><em>JLIS.it</em> —Italian Journal of Library, Archives, and Information Science— is an academic, cross-disciplinary, peer-reviewed, and open access journal, aiming to value innovative international research.</p> <p>JLIS.it achieved the <a href="https://doaj.org/faq#seal">DOAJ Seal of Approval for Open Access Journals</a> (the DOAJ Seal), <strong>a mark of certification for open access journals</strong>, awarded by DOAJ to journals that achieve a high level of openness, adhere to Best Practice and high publishing standards.</p> <p>Moreover JLIS.it is ranked by <a href="http://www.anvur.org/index.php?lang=it">ANVUR</a>, the Italian National Agency for the Evaluation of the University and Research Systems, as a <strong>"Classe A" journal</strong>. It's also indexed in <em>Emerging sources Citation Index</em> and <em>Scopus databases</em>.</p> <p><strong>Editor in chief: </strong><a>Mauro Guerrini</a>, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy</p> <p><strong>ISSN (online): </strong>2038-1026</p> Firenze University Press en-US JLIS.it 2038-1026 <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="http://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a><br />This work is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>. </p> Modeling knowledge, archival and bibliographic standards in comparison. 1st JLIS.it Seminar - May 19th 2022 https://jlis.it/index.php/jlis/article/view/493 <p>The editorial gives an account of the insights that emerged during the Jlis.it seminar Modelling Knowledge, held in Florence on 19 May 2022.&nbsp;First, the political potential of the initiative in terms of integration and collaboration between documentary disciplines is emphasised.&nbsp;It then dwells on the descriptive habits of the different domains in search of more effective knowledge management models in a broad sense.&nbsp;Finally, the text opens up to the readiness of the journal to become a meeting place for different reflections on knowledge modelling.</p> Editorial Board Copyright (c) 2022 Editorial Board https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 3 I III 10.36253/jlis.it-493 The parts and the whole. Integrate knowledge https://jlis.it/index.php/jlis/article/view/477 <p>The article deals with the themes of integration between the different cataloguing and disciplinary descriptive traditions. It initially evaluates the transition phase from methods to established practices up to the new solicitations caused by the transformations of information production models. Lastly, the paper focus on the theme of the reconceptualization of domain languages ​​to move on to outline the concept of metacataloguing as a possible descriptive synthesis.</p> Federico Valacchi Copyright (c) 2022 Federico Valacchi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 3 1 11 10.36253/jlis.it-477 Entity modeling: traces of an evolving path https://jlis.it/index.php/jlis/article/view/481 <p>In this work we will deal with the subject of entities understood as real-world objects and how this concept is used in the context of entity modeling, that process of identification and modeling of entities that plays so much part in projects of con-version of catalogs into linked open data. The help in understanding what this concept expresses within the bibliographic universe comes from object-oriented programming, which introduces the concept of modeling and management of an “object” by defining its state and behavior. But to model an object it is necessary to identify it and this process must often take place dealing with massive amounts of data, not necessarily homogeneously structured: the Entity Resolution is this set of machine processes that tries to resolve the ambiguities given by the inhomogeneity of the descriptions referable to the same entity. The adoption of these practices, in the bibliographic field, still moves the horizon of the cataloging action, which had already extended towards the more general metadating, towards that web of data that imposes a new way of understanding objects and treating them: entity modeling promises to be the third generational step in the management of bibliographic data.</p> Tiziana Possemato Copyright (c) 2022 Tiziana Possemato https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 3 12 28 10.36253/jlis.it-481 A look at metadata processing beyond Libraries https://jlis.it/index.php/jlis/article/view/492 <p>Since many years libraries, archives and museums, the institutions entrusted with the dissemination and conservation of cultural heritage, contributed to metada standards definition, meta-dating methodologies and metadata representation in different syntaxes, by partecipating to national projects and international initiatives.<br />Management systems and catalogs used in these contexts borrow from information and telecommunication technology tools, metodoligies and techniques to generate, organize, share and use various types of metadata. But the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) area is not only a supplier of technological tools and solutions as it also constitutes a rich basin in which metadata plays a fundamental role in designing architectures, modeling information systems and implementing services.<br />Through an overview that includes national and European initiatives, especially in the digital transformation process of the public sector, this paper aims to offer a look to metadata beyond the traditional boundary of libraries and other cultural institutions and to underline some relevant aspects such as standardization, sharing, reuse and metadata quality assessment.<br />This framework highlights the need to carry on with the path of cooperation between different functional domains and organizational contexts in order to consolidate and extend the (re)use of metadata schemes, ontologies and controlled vocabularies both in the redesign of digitized processes and in the implementation of services supporting them.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>By undertaking<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>since design early stages a multidisciplinary approach based on metadata standards can ensure greater flexibility and higher interoperability. This vision requires the enhancement of intersectorial skills that meld metadata methodologies and syntaxes representation basic knowledge<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>with the ability to model functional domains using metadata schemes and ontologies.</p> Valdo Pasqui Copyright (c) 2022 Valdo Pasqui https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 3 29 48 10.36253/jlis.it-492 Wikibase, or The search for the unicorn https://jlis.it/index.php/jlis/article/view/484 <p>The aim of this paper is to study the technological implementation of the emergent bibliographic models (IFLA LRM in particular) taking into account one of the most widespread platforms for the semantic web, namely Wikibase. Different initiatives of implementation of LRM have been taken into account, included: a) a prototype cataloging interface; b)the implementation of the new cataloging system for the Bibliothéque Nationale de France (Bnf); c) a test of use of one of the feature of the <em>Wikibase data model</em> - namely the "qualifier"- to find a sustainable solution for the LRM <em>nomen</em> entity. Wikibase and his data model cannot be considered the magical unicorn that solves all problems. More in-depth analysis and tests are needed, but – as an intermediate result – we can consider Wikibase a promising platform also in the bibliographic field with a low entry barrier.</p> Giovanni Bergamin Copyright (c) 2022 Giovanni Bergamin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 3 49 62 10.36253/jlis.it-484 The entities of the IFLA-LRM, RiC-CM and CIDOC-CRM models in the semantic web https://jlis.it/index.php/jlis/article/view/482 <p>The traditional approach to cataloguing has always been based on the investigation of the characteristics of the objects in collections that are most relevant to the construction of catalogues. The evolution of cataloguing theory has therefore led to the identification and analysis of entities with those characteristics and to the construction of a logical model capable of explaining bibliographic phenomena in an increasingly refined manner. That approach also led to the definition of RiCCM and CIDOC-CRM models. In addition to this valid point of view, a second perspective is proposed, which takes into account the entities identified in the logical models developed in the library, archive and museum models as part of the much larger, richer and more numerous ontologies of the semantic web, represented by the Linked Open Data Cloud. In this perspective, the logical models of libraries, archives, and museums can be seen as some of the possible infinite modelling of web entities, constructed in the light of the principles and tradition of each subject area. This new perspective helps to better clarify the role of data professionals, the concept of metadata, the characteristics of logical models and to take a unified view of the bibliographic, archival and museum universes.</p> Carlo Bianchini Copyright (c) 2022 Carlo Bianchini https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 3 63 75 10.36253/jlis.it-482 From the uniform title to the preferred title: the prominence of the cultural and linguistic context https://jlis.it/index.php/jlis/article/view/474 <p>By anchoring the title to a cultural context, it is possible that a universally valid title form (uniform title) does not exist or exist; the form used at the national or regional level is a form commonly used in that or those countries, that is, in a local or national context, not a global one. The concept of preferred title goes beyond, relativizing it, the cataloging model, considered an absolute time for every reality; it is acknowledged that what is valid for a specific cultural and linguistic context does not necessarily apply to the international context. The dissimilar historical behavior is exemplified by two examples: “One Thousand and One Nights”, and “The Chanson de Roland”.</p> Mauro Guerrini Copyright (c) 2022 Mauro Guerrini https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 3 76 89 10.36253/jlis.it-474 Conceptual models and users https://jlis.it/index.php/jlis/article/view/479 <p>The paper presents an analysis of user tasks in the conceptual models, with an overview of the objectives and functions<br />of the catalogue from Cutter to the International Cataloguing Principles, a critical reflection on user tasks and a proposal<br />for a rethinking of these. The user tasks as presented in the conceptual models present critical aspects, in particular they<br />do not bring out some important aspects concerning the users’ motivations for searches and the users’ competences. The<br />presentation of some critical aspects of user Ttasks is followed by an initial proposal for a more complex reflection on how<br />users use catalogues to carry out searches of different kinds.</p> Lucia Sardo Copyright (c) 2022 Lucia Sardo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 3 90 102 10.36253/jlis.it-479 A new edition of the Guida al sistema italiano di indicizzazione per soggetto https://jlis.it/index.php/jlis/article/view/494 <p>This contribution reproduces the text of the speech that was held in the framework of the presentation of the second edition of the volume <em>Nuovo soggettario. Guida al sistema italiano di indicizzazione per soggetto</em>, that took place in Florence on June 7th, 2022. As happened in these years with the subject indexing tools of important national libraries, the National Central Library of Florence, too, has updated the <em>Nuovo soggettario</em>, that saw the light in 2007, today employed by the Italian National Bibliography (BNI) and by most libraries of the National Library System (SBN). The intervention recalls the context factors that led to the project and to the elaboration of the second edition of the <em>Guida</em>, fully revised and updated: the evolution of the international scene related to indexing (new standards, new conceptual models), the semantic web and the linked open data; the development of the <em>Nuovo soggettario</em> system as a whole (increase of terminology, connections with equivalents in other languages, with resources of archives and museums, availability of the Thesaurus in exchange formats and standard protocols, etc.). The second edition’s novelties are then illustrated: a better organized exposure of the standards, more functional to their use, a totally new first part dedicated to the principles and to the general aspects of the indexing, the confrontation with IFLA LRM, the references to the indexing of non-bibliographical resources (figurative works, photographs) of ancient works, etc. Finally, it ends by stressing the importance that the cooperation with other partner institutions and with ICCU has had in this work, and shall continue to have in the future, for a greater and greater sharing of the semantic data on behalf of the Italian libraries.</p> Anna Lucarelli Copyright (c) 2022 Anna Lucarelli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 3 103 114 10.36253/jlis.it-494 Rule following https://jlis.it/index.php/jlis/article/view/488 <p>The importance attached to subject indexing in library services, librarian awareness of its social role and practical purposes,<br />attention to indexing practices and the use of catalogs: How are these elements reflected in the system of rules governing<br />subject indexing in Italy? What does “rule following”, to use Wittengenstein’s well-known expression, mean in our field?<br />Why and how do we follow a rule? In which sense is following a rule a practice? How and in which conditions does the<br />rule relate to the practice and vice versa? Beginning with these questions, the main features of the Italian subject indexing<br />rules are illustrated: explicit rules, based on linguistic criteria, contain justifications for why a given rule should be followed<br />and should be sensitive to the use-context. All three of these features imply a relationship with practice; at the same time,<br />the rules presuppose a social practice in which they are employed and express their pragmatic meaning. Thus, the indexing<br />rules are manifested in the language of indexing through the means by which this language is used; that is, in the indexing<br />activity and in the use of catalogs. Hence, the call for libraries to attend to the pragmatic dimension of subject indexing.</p> Alberto Cheti Copyright (c) 2022 Alberto Cheti https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 3 115 124 10.36253/jlis.it-488 Identifiers within conceptual models and standards https://jlis.it/index.php/jlis/article/view/473 <p>Identifiers are numeric or alphanumeric strings of characters permanently and uniquely associated with a resource to ensure stable access to it and its metadata. They play a fundamental role in the semantic web as they guarantee interoperability between different systems. Since their emergence, libraries and other institutions have been aware of their importance in data quality control processes, for the realization of authority control and universal bibliographic control, and have dedicated specific chapters for their registration within conceptual models, cataloguing standards and have provided specific fields in cataloguing formats.</p> <p> </p> Laura Manzoni Copyright (c) 2022 Laura Manzoni https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 3 125 135 10.36253/jlis.it-473 Conceptual and linguistic changes: document, resource, and item https://jlis.it/index.php/jlis/article/view/487 <p>The bibliographic universe has radically changed in a short time; the major innovations, mainly related to the digital environment, have had consequences in terms of terminology. This contribution offers an analysis of three specific international cataloguing terms: <em>document</em>, <em>resource,</em> and <em>item</em>. The terms <em>document</em> and <em>resource</em> constitute an example of terminological evolution; <em>item</em>, introduced in cataloguing by FRBR as the fourth entity of Group I, highlights the difficulties of transposition from one linguistic system to another, and the multiple terminological meanings linked to different disciplinary contexts.</p> Denise Biagiotti Copyright (c) 2022 Denise Biagiotti https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 3 136 144 10.36253/jlis.it-487 Name, things, places: towards a semantic, sustainable, usable integration? https://jlis.it/index.php/jlis/article/view/480 <p>In the nowadays world characterized by complexity, the digital systems for archival and bibliographic description are, especially in Italy, a faithful mirror of too many horizontal (among bodies with national functions) and vertical (among central and peripheral levels) complications. The integration of data sets conceived according to the up-to-date conceptual domain models would simplify the dynamics of representation, improve user experiences, and optimize the environmental costs of computing infrastructures. The concepts to be shared should relate to agents (individual or collective), places, and chronological data, deepening on how to address the more complex issues opened by <em>things</em>. This paper introduces three possible scenarios of semantic cooperation between archivists and librarians, not necessarily alternative: activating a conceptual matching through common entities, relying on a neutral semantic data infrastructure such as Wikidata, or, finally, developing a transversal core ontology. Hoping that disciplinary boundaries will not impede cooperation, two types of impediments must be considered: the organizational one (bottom-up, top-down, or a virtuous synergy between the two organizational models?) and the crucial issue of offering easy-to-use interfaces to end-users, not only constituted by software agents.</p> Pierluigi Feliciati Copyright (c) 2022 Pierluigi Feliciati https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 3 145 153 10.36253/jlis.it-480 Archival description and conceptual transversality https://jlis.it/index.php/jlis/article/view/485 <p>Archival description has become more and more clearly characterized in terms of transversality, as the process of assembling the representations of different information entities; these different components contribute to defining the return of an objective.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> <p>To this “internal” transversality is then added the question posed by the growing need for multidimensionality functional to the technological system, in an increase which feeds reflections on normalization and the need for contextual plurality</p> Concetta Damiani Copyright (c) 2022 Concetta Damiani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 3 154 161 10.36253/jlis.it-485 Agrifood data processing in Italy: a conceptual model https://jlis.it/index.php/jlis/article/view/491 <p>Through the study and analysis of a precise economic sector, that of agribusiness, this contribution attempts to elaborate a replicable conceptual model that, in compliance with scientific methodologies, can contribute to the development of current archives, which will later be historical, capable of managing traceable and secure digital flows. In that absolute semantic individuality that characterizes each documentary complex, subject to "rules" of treatment only by productive affinities and common provenance characteristics, the application of standards has been a matter of discussion for the scientific literature. The example from which we wish to move concerns a specific category of Software Packages (LIMS) that are currently used in Italy by analytical laboratories and that implement integrated management of multiple data and processes.</p> Annantonia Martorano Elena Gonnelli Copyright (c) 2022 Annantonia Martorano, Elena Gonnelli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 13 3 162 174 10.36253/jlis.it-491